HMS VICTORIOUS
1.The frequency standard
the FSB
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FSB Box. No operator
 controls. No VLF receiver
to check/monitor
aging rate of 5MHz crystal

VIC WADLEY
 TRIPLE MIX.pdf

Self evident [SE]

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[SE]

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[SE]

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[SE]

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[SE]

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CJK receiver
 synthesis


2. The OVERALL ship fit VIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.pdf  when viewed as three windows, left centre and right. Left is the SHIP-AIR system, and right the SHIP-SHORE system. In the middle, the top 3 CJK's belong to the SHIP-AIR system and the bottom 4 CJK's to the SHIP-SHORE system.

3. Ship - Air
Communications System
VIC SHIP-AIR TX.pdf

See 'A' Below

VIC SSB SHIP-AIR RECEPTION.pdf

See 'B' Below

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VOGAD
System

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VOGAD
Use

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See 'C' Below

VIC CJK SCHEMATIC.pdf

Self Evident [SE]

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CJK

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TX AE
 Exchange
 [SE]

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TCU

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WBA


4. Ship-Shore
 Communications System
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640

VIC CJK
 SCHEMATIC.pdf

Self Evident [SE]

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CJK

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GAA
RATT

See 'D'
Below

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GAA

VIC SHIP
-SHORE TX.pdf

See 'E' Below

VIC KHB
 SCHEMATIC.pdf

See 'F' Below


5. System Aerials VIC SSB AERIAL LAYOUT.pdf

See 'G' Below

VIC FUNNEL AERIAL.pdf

See 'H' Below

VIC BICONICAL AERIAL.pdf

Self Evident [SE]

VIC MAST AERIAL.pdf

Comments
 in 'G'
apply

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Dummy
Load

VIC INSULATED BASE.pdf

Self Evident [SE]

VIC EAL
 CONNECTIONS
 TO RECEIVERS.pdf

See 'I' Below

COMMENTS ON JPEG's and PDF's in Lines 1 to 5 above.
Comment Letter Comment
A This diagram shows the functional connection from the USER of the circuit, in this case ALWAYS SSB VOICE [A3J or possibly A3A when conditions warrant]. The switch on the TCU <see last but one JPEG> of transmitter 'A' {TDA 'A'/WBA 'A' ] is set to 'Strike Control Position' . It could be set to Local for use by the W/T operator in the TR or to KHB for use by anybody else in the ship.  It says that two channels, B & C are available, but only one channel was wired for use. The air world had transmitters A, B and C at their disposal constantly and each line went to the Strike Control Position to a central control box.  From this box, the officer in charge could either route the use of the three transmitters to three separate users, or two of them could be used by one person and if necessary [to parallel key] one person could use all three simultaneously. As drawn, the users voice passes through the TCU and enters the VOGAD <see VOGAD JPEG's> stand-alone system.  The processed voice signal then passes into the TDA where it modulates the 100 kHz coming in from the FSB.  Voice frequencies are filtered to be 300 Hz to 3400Hz.  In effect, this is what happens in the TDA. Let us assume that we have been given the frequency of 4500kHz on which to communicate using SSB USB [A3J]. The TDA behaves as follows

1.  In each of the areas shown with a RED STAR there is a 100kHz input.
2.  The TDA synthesiser always makes up a frequency which when added to the 300kHz sub carrier, represents the output frequency. Thus for 4500kHz it will produce 4200kHz.
3.  The 300kHz sub carrier mixes with the modulation GREEN STAR in Balanced Mixer Two, which is 300Hz to 3400Hz. This produces sums, differences and the two original inputs at the RED EGG TIMER, but the Bandpass Filter always picks the sum for USB.  Thus at the WHITE NO ENTRY SIGN   there is a band of frequencies from 300.3 to 303.4kHz.
4.  This mixes with the output from the synthesiser in Balanced Mixer One, again producing sums, differences and the original two inputs, but the Bandpass Filter always picks the sum and passes it only on for amplification. We have been given 4500kHz as our Assigned Frequency [fass] and therefore as far as possible, we have to centre our transmission on that frequency. Because we are using 300 to 3400Hz as a voice signal, we are using a total of 3.1kHz  in which to place our intelligence. Half of 3.1 is 1.55kHz so our used bandwidth should be 4500kHz 1.55kHz: in other words, from 4498.45 to 4501.55kHz. Since we are going to add the necessary modulation to our transmitter dial set, the dial set is obviously going to be lower than 4500, the fass.  Were we to use the LSB, the reverse would be true. To be absolutely accurate, our dial set should be 1.85kHz below the fass, namely set on 4498.15kHz {because our baseband starts at 300 Hz and not at zero Hz} and then the lowest voice frequency of 300Hz when added to the transmitter dial set would emit 4498.45kHz and the highest voice frequency of 3400Hz would add to produce 4501.55kHz. HOWEVER life is not that easy, and anyway taking 1.85 off something is more difficult than taking off 1.5 or 2.0, which are respectively the choices made by most people with the Army [or more correctly JOINT SERVICE working] opting for the 2kHz difference. By the way, the commercial difference was settled internationally on 1.4kHz. The Royal Navy [with the majority] uses 1.5kHz and the difference between the fass and the transmitter dial set is called the OFFSET. Lets go back to our fass of 4500kHz.  If the transmitter dial setting is 1.5kHz lower than the fass, at 4498.5kHz then you can see from the picture above, that the output from the Synthesis into Balanced Mixer One must been 4198.5kHz, such that when the 300.3kHz is added we emit correctly on 4198.5 + 300.3 = 4498.8kHz and for 303.4, on 4198.5 + 303.4 = 4501.9 both frequencies being the correct upper and lower limits. So the BLUE STAR frequency is 4198.5kHz.
5.  Our happy little YELLOW MAN observes the sums, differences and originals, whilst the PURPLE FACTORY CHIMNEY checks that only the SUMS go through.  The ORANGE FLASH OF LIGHTENING guides our signal to the attenuator which is controlled from the TCU. 
6.  So, in summary, what passes to the WBA.  The WBA is a broadband amplifier and it simply amplifies what it gets without tuning.  If the attenuator on the TCU is set to allow lots of power to the WBA, the WBA will obey and produce a proportionally high Wattage output, but if the db's of attenuation are added, the corresponding WBA output will also be attenuated.  The frequency, its modulation, its emission and its first stage of amplification is all completed at the TDA stage.
7.  The WBA passes its now much amplified output [up to 1kW] to the SR Unit, but in this fit, where the reception side [CJK's] has its own receiver aerial system [EAL], the send/receive function is not used except for single line working in an emergency.  In this application, Relay RL is permanently made to the Transmit position.
8.  The aerial exchange is a simple plug and socket system and is easy to follow on the drawing. As drawn, our transmit path is routed to Filter No2 and it is switched to Dummy Load for tuning purposes.  This transmitter could have been plugged to any of the four aerial terminating on the exchange interface. When not switched to dummy load, the transmitter is connected to the broadband aerial formed on the ships funnel which covers the band 3 to 11.5 MHz.

B This diagram covers the inputs and outputs to one receiver CJK devoted to the Air system: it is repeated three times for the complete SSB reception side. The FSB side we have covered. As stated above in A7, the S/R Unit is not used and the receiver aerial inputs come from receiver CAW EAL shown over to the right upper. The outputs to the remote user are shown bottom right going to the circuit TCU which controls transmission and routes the use of the transmitter and receiver together.  You can clearly see the words 'AUDIO' on lines P1 and P2.
C You are looking at the transmitter CAW system and specifically to a Filter Drawer and the Control Unit. The bottom part of the picture deals with the tuning on one of the three transmit legs into a dummy load, and when the correct tuning points are reached, the system is switched over to 'live' aerial for final tuning. The top part is the control panel which deals with all three transmit legs. The unit on the left  [with the meters] is common to all three filter drawers whilst on the right, each filter has its own push to tune buttons and an on/off switch for dummy load use. Let us assume that we are using TDA 'A' and therefore WBA 'A' and that line has been connected at the exchange to Filter 1 which is the 8 to 24MHz broadband aerial formed on the Biconical Aerial Type AGG. First off, we switch to WBA 'A' which connects the VSWR [Voltage Standing Wave Ratio] and Power meters to that broadband amplifier. Then switch 'Tune' to the on position.  This starts the dummy load blower motor and energises the Filter and Transformer Meters. The purpose of the tuning stage is to adjust the LC Filter and the Matching Transformer to make the AERIAL CIRCUIT and the COAXIAL FEEDER  appear as a 50 ohm resistive load for the WBA, and we know when this is achieved [or nearly so - best scenario] when we achieve the required POWER OUTPUT reading and the minimum STANDING WAVE.  In effect, the Power Meter reading rises and the VSWR reading falls. The VSWR meter is calibrated from 0.1 FSD [full scale deflection] to 1.0 MSD [minimum scale deflection]. To assess an accurate power output one would multiply the meter readings obtained on both meters. If the POWER meter was reading 500W and the VSWR meter was 1, then all our power would be going forward and none would be wasted as a reflected wave.  In practice though, if we achieved a reading of 0.85 {or better} we would be satisfied because our power output would be 500 x 0.85 = 425 Watts.  To adjust the transformer - coarse tuning -  [looking for a favourable change on the Power/VSWR meters] we would use the buttons on the bottom bank of Filter 1, and for the LC filter - fine tuning - the top bank. A correct combinations of these push button movements would produce the correct results on the meters. Once achieved the transmission line can be connected to its chosen aerial.  Note, the dummy load presents a near perfect 50 ohm load and with the use of many Watts, it gets pretty hot.
D RATT, in all its glory will be covered separately.  However, since the GAA is mentioned as part of the Victorious fit, here is a little piece about it in the 1950's. As you will have read on these pages, just one of the four 640's fitted for Ship-Shore communications could be used to transmit a RATT Signal. The RATT signal was either known as "SSB FSK" {which became known as "F1" but only in the RN}  or "DSB TWO TONE RATT", the latter, the type of emission later ships, with full RWA equipment, used on UHF circuits but nowhere else!  The outfit GAA accepts DC output levels from either a teleprinter or an auto transmitter [autohead] and converts them into a MARK of 2975Hz and a SPACE of 2125Hz and feeds them to a switch {a kind of pressel switch} fitted into the Microphone Lines of transmitter No 4. From the keyboard of the teleprinter comes ZERO volts for a Space and between 30-60V for Mark, and the GAA converts these to a switching waveform of 1 Volts. Speeds of up to 100 bauds {133.3 WPM} were possible. This switching waveform gates the output of the tones which leave the GAA as a standard input [1mW into 600 ohms = 0dBm] to the 640.  Thus, the GAA was the forerunner of the TT10/TTVF[T]/SUR of an RWA package which we will mention in great detail in the RATT pages.  Before leaving, perhaps it might be better to remind our readers of what FSK really was, and how mis-leading  it was to call what they generated,  FSK,  with a GAA:  a better name would have been simply SSB RATT or SSB TONE RATT. A transmitter, set to transmit FSK would actually move its carrier up and down the transmitted spectrum in sympathy with the line condition transmitting either a Mark or a Space condition. In the case of the GAA transmission, instead of a composite voice baseband signal being send down the microphone lines of between 300 and 3400 Hz depending upon the voice [male, female, deep, high, excited, monotone etc etc] just one tone [in that voice baseband] was sent to line at any one time, and since being SSB on the USB with the carrier fully suppressed, that was it.
E The Ship-Shore Transmission System - Part of COMIST.  This shows the path of a signal from user to aerial for the 640 transmitter system using base tune ETC and whip aerial Type AWL[M]. The story starts in the bottom left hand corner with the inputs which are from the KHB and/or FSK RATT interface, the latter on one transmit line only, viz No 4 640. From the bottom 640 panel, the Sideband Generator and over to the right, you will see, that like the TDA [in 'A' above] only now a sub carrier of 100kHz instead of 300kHz, the 100 kHz sub carrier with modulation imposed leaving to be added to the synthesised output frequency [exactly same explanation as above in the TDA except for the difference in sub carrier frequency]. The Drive Amplifier [top central] is just like the AMP in the drawing of the TDA above, and the Final Stage [top right] is the equivalent to the WBA.  The control unit and the AMU are the direct equivalents to the detail in Section 'C' above but without a dummy load.  The only difference is that all you see in front of you, is set within the Cabinet which is the Type 640 transmitter whereas the previously mentioned system is piecemeal.
F KHB is the old Aircraft Carrier Control Outfit [see Control Outfits]. It simply shows one the 'user route' for any given SSB circuit whether it be Air [TDA/CJK] or Ship [640/CJK]. For example, let us have a look at the Air world, to the users in Strike Control [bottom right]. A possible three users [for three circuits].  To use the 3 circuits [TX and RX] all the necessary lamp, control lines and control voltages must be available to the remote users position. You will see that these requirements are provided to the Strike Controllers Position from Transmitter Control Unit 'A' as drawn but also from 'B' and 'C' not drawn and these come via the Upper Transmitter Room and its Annexe on JB's [junction boxes] No's 32, 9 and 10. Note that those same facilities are available to the Ship [non-Air] via JB's No's 34, 31 and 33 eventually to the CCX Upper in the Lower Receiving Room. Although not shown, the Air worlds CJK receivers are sent to the Strike Control via the Transmitter Control Units for each of the three transmitters.  The top half of the diagram [although only two of the four 640's are shown] deals solely with the Ships SSB facility and shows the same necessary lines passing through JB's to the CCX's.  The four Ship CJK's are married to the 640 [when necessary] via plug and patching at the CCX's.
G A nice little picture for you. It shows of the 984 Radar!  As always for Carriers, the picture is in two halves, the PORT side and the STARBOARD.  The Island is always on the starboard side and thus one can assume [hopefully] that flying operations are not conducted too close to this side of the ship.  My comment really only applies to 'straight deck' carriers and not to 'angle deck' carriers, for in the former case, planes landed plumb aft, whereas in the latter case, they landed on a starboard quarter/port bow line. Apart from the interesting things apparent on the Island itself and on the flight deck which are fixed, look immediately aft of the Island and there you will see the jib of a crane [not really part of our story!]. Then comes a wire aerial rig and if you look at the shape of the tops of the two lattice masts holding it vertically, you will understand why these were universally called "hockey sticks". This rig is for reception, and when necessary, the two lattice masts are lowered outboard to the horizontal position so that they are out of the way of Air Ops but continue receiving. Now we come to the AWL[M] [see Aerials] {transmission  in this case} and you will see that there are four on the port side and one aft on the starboard side. These too are lowered to the horizontal when flying. Obviously, all other 'obstacles' are also hidden away if they could foul Air Ops.
H An interesting read but look at the General Notes top centre. Note the feed point Matching Transformer, and that the guys holding the aerial in free space are heavily adorned with glass insulators. When this revolutionary method of actually using parts of the ships superstructure first came to the Fleet [1950's] crew members vacated their favourite sun-bathing places, or, if they had already fathered the size of the family they was pleased with, they would frequent these 'aerials' much more often than of yore, because it was known that too much direct radiation could sterilise one!
I This drawing shows the route of receive aerial distribution which have come, mainly, from the "hockey stick" array on the starboard side of the flight deck. The filters you see top left are tuneable to act as bandpass filters to the receiver frequency but bandstop to other frequencies not concerned with the circuit.  Note: the circuit transmitter [tuned to the same frequency as the receiver] mutes the receiver when transmitting, and when not, is silent,  thereby causing no interference to the receiver being protected by these filters.  The aerials come to an Aerial Exchange [there are two in this ship] and from there are routed to every receiver in the ship SSB or non-SSB. The Air world system which is lettered CJK 'A' to 'C' and the Ship world which is numbered CJK '1' to '4' plus the older receivers CAY [B40] and CAZ [B41] are all served with lines terminated with a suitable impedance [75 ohms] after the last receiver using it.

This then has been a very brief look into the fit in HMS Victorious,  a hybrid fit that no other ship had. As a communications platform it could be said to be a COMIST ship, a STANDARD TWO, and as an air platform, a MONGREL

You will soon be seeing the TDA, the WBA, broadband aerial and filter, receiver CAW and band suppression filter, etc again, but next time with much different peripherals and control systems which will introduce a greater amount of flexibility and efficiency. For those of you who know what is to come, think back to the dear old Vic and remember the very first Transmitter Control Unit [TCU] ever used for a TDA; it was called a TCU [Special] and it certainly was!

After this picture you can return to the ICS story.

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